By Charles Larry
The sound of the sandhill crane seems to echo across an immense gulf of antiquity. Cranes evolved during the Eocene (56-33.9 million years ago). The earth was warmer and wetter during this time, and in North America, with vast areas of prairie, savanna, marsh, and shallow inland seas, it was ideal habitat for the ancient ancestors of modern cranes. This early crane was likely a relative of the crowned crane now found in Africa. Fossil remains of this early crane have been found in North America, dating some 10 million years. But then the climate in North America started to cool, eventually bringing about the Ice Ages. These events saw the disappearance of this early crane on the continent. At some point a relative of the modern crane, one suited for cooler climates, evolved here. The earliest fossil of this later crane was a bone almost identical to that found in modern sandhills. This fossil was found in Florida, dating back 2.5 million years. Modern sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) are divided among two and six geographical subspecies, depending on sources. Generally, there are the greater and lesser sandhills.
Nachusa Grasslands has had sandhill cranes stop over for brief periods over several years. In August of 2018, even a pair of whooping cranes stopped and then moved on! As far as is known, this is the first time that a pair of sandhills have nested and raised two colts (as the young sandhills are called) at Nachusa. It is usual for sandhill cranes to lay two eggs, a few days to a week apart, but it is rare that both colts will live to fledge. Some reasons as to why only one colt survives are various predators, lack of sufficient food, and sometimes the aggression of the older crane toward its slightly younger sibling. At Nachusa both of the young have fledged and are flying.
Sandhill cranes usually mate for life. They become sexually mature at two years old but four or five years old is more likely to be when mating begins. Sandhills are well known for their "dancing" during mating season. This behavior is not fully understood, as cranes of any age may dance at times not related to breeding season. It is thought to also be a way of working off aggression.
Both sexes participate in the building of the nest, constructed in or near water. Nests are composed of plant material found near the nesting site, such as cattails, sedges, rushes, and grasses.
Nests can be six feet in diameter. At breeding time both sexes "paint" their feathers with clay and mud. The birds are normally gray in color, but the painting changes the feathers to brown. This is thought to be a camouflaging technique to blend in with the nesting site.
Both parents incubate the eggs. While one sits on the nest, the other is either standing guard or gathering food. The female usually sits on the nest during the night. Hatching is about a month after laying. After hatching, the cranes abandon the nesting site, moving to a hidden spot somewhere still near water.
The parents are fiercely protective of the young. Many predators are a danger to either the eggs or the colts. Among them are coyotes, foxes, raccoons, owls, and various hawks, all of which inhabit Nachusa Grasslands.
Sandhills eat a variety of food, from insects such as grasshoppers or dragonflies, to aquatic plants and tubers, to small mammals such as mice, to snakes and worms. They will even eat the eggs of other birds, such as red-winged blackbirds, rails, and ducks. More recently, sandhills have learned to forage in cornfields and will often flock in vast numbers doing this. During breeding season, they are very territorial with an average territory range of about 20 acres. Until the cranes abandon the nesting site, where they are more or less isolated, they will defend this territory from other sandhills and predators by various aggressive displays and even fighting.
By late summer the sandhills will probably move to an area where there is a larger crane population and more abundant food to fatten up for migration, which will happen sometime in the fall. The juveniles will stay with the parents during migration and through the winter. Sometime in the following spring they will separate from their parents and go out on their own. The main winter flyways for migration in this area are either south to Georgia or Florida or over to Texas.
Sandhill cranes are threatened, as is true of cranes the world over. Climate change is one major threat. Droughts have become much more frequent, and wetlands are disappearing. In some states cranes are hunted. In the past, this resulted in the extinction of sandhills from Washington State in 1941. They have now been reintroduced to this state in small numbers. Farming conversion to incompatible crops (soybeans) over crops like corn also threatens cranes. Probably the biggest threat is from loss of habitat from urbanization and development.
The sandhill crane is a magnificent bird. It would be tremendously sad if someday the sandhill crane were to join the thousands of species disappearing from our planet. To hear no more the sound of this bird, which author Peter Matthiessen says is "the most ancient of all birds, the oldest living bird species on earth." Sad indeed.
Johnsgard, Paul A. A Chorus of Cranes: the Cranes of North America and the World.
University of Colorado Press, 2015.
Forsberg, Michael. On Ancient Wings. University of Nebraska Press, 2004.
Matthiessen, Peter. The Birds of Heaven, North Point Press, 2001.
If you would like to play a part in habitat restoration for sandhill cranes at Nachusa Grasslands, consider joining our Thursday or Saturday Workdays, or give a donation to the Friends of Nachusa Grasslands. Donations to Friends can be designated to support the ongoing stewardship at Nachusa.
By Jess Fliginger
At first glance, it’s easy to mistake a fritillary butterfly for the well-known monarch; both can be seen fluttering across the prairie during the summer months, are similarly-sized, and are orange with black markings.
In 2017 I spent the summer surveying for butterflies, particularly regal fritillaries and monarchs, in remnant prairies across the Loess Hills of Iowa. From my experience, the only way to get close enough to identify, or be fortunate to snap a photo of a butterfly is to move slowly and cautiously towards it as it’s fixed atop a flower, busily sipping nectar. Be prepared to pursue a fidgety butterfly for several yards as it swiftly drifts from one flower to the next. It took a great deal of practice and patience before I was able to become a stealthy butterfly ninja. Upon closer observation, the difference between a monarch and a fritillary butterfly becomes more apparent.
There are 14 species of greater fritillaries (genus Speyeria) and 16 species of lesser fritillaries (genus Boloria). Both have a widespread range and can be found across the northern half of the United States into Canada, in some southern states, and parts of Mexico. Greater fritillaries inhabit woodland openings, meadows, prairies, and other open habitats where violets are present, while lesser fritillaries primarily live in wet meadows and bogs. Although greater fritillaries are much larger than lesser fritillaries, it can still be difficult to tell them apart while in flight.
In total, there are 6 species of fritillaries that call Nachusa Grasslands home: great spangled fritillary (Speyeria cybele), regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia), aphrodite fritillary (Speyeria aphrodite), silver-bordered fritillary (Boloria selene), meadow fritillary (Boloria bellona), and variegated fritillary (Euptoieta claudia). The most common, and easiest to approach, is the great spangled fritillary. Of these, the regal fritillary is the only state-threatened species.
A prairie-specialist species, regal fritillaries have drastically diminished throughout the Midwest, with only two localized populations remaining east of Illinois and several small isolated populations east of the Great Plains states and western Missouri.
Typically, fritillaries have one brood and one flight period from June to August. Females lay their eggs near violets (Viola spp.), the caterpillar’s main food plant, in shady areas on the underside of dead vegetation. Soon after, the larvae hatch, crawl into nearby leaf litter, and sleep through the winter without feeding. During late winter to spring, the caterpillars begin munching on newly-sprouted violets and mature rapidly. Once fully grown, they pupate for several weeks until an adult fritillary butterfly emerges. Clearly, without violets there would be no fritillaries! Luckily for fritillaries, Nachusa has 7 species of violets throughout the preserve, as well as plenty of nectar sources to choose from.
Equally as important to their survival, adult fritillaries require a large variety of nectar sources from native and non-native plants. I usually see them on coneflowers, goldenrods, ironweed, blazing-stars, milkweeds, mints, clovers, thistles – just to name a few. Plant any of these, along with violets, in your butterfly garden, and maybe a beautiful fritillary will pay you a visit.
Jess Fliginger worked for Nachusa as a restoration technician during the summer of 2016. She has continued to be involved at the preserve, helping researchers conduct fieldwork and gather data. Working alongside Dr. Rich King in 2018 and 2019, she has collected data on Nachusa’s Blanding’s turtles . In addition, she has been volunteering with small mammal research since 2015, and worked for Dr. Holly Jones as a small mammal field technician in 2019. Lately, she has worked and volunteered in land restoration to enhance her skill set. She plans on assisting with prescribed burns at Nachusa this upcoming spring.
By Dee Hudson and Charles Larry
The above quote is from a short piece I wrote for Prairie Smoke, describing, somewhat humorously, the first year my wife and I acquired Photo Points (2008). It was a year of learning in so many ways. Photo Points assigns numbers to specific locations of Nachusa Grasslands, usually along property boundary lines. It's a way to monitor the prairie restoration process. The project began in 1999 with Bill Kleiman and Gerald McDermott, a volunteer.
The photographer identifies points that he wants to photograph during a season, based on various factors: how long it's been since a point was last done, how much change has occurred in an area, or how an area is likely to change in the near future. Once points are selected, they can be found on a detailed map.
Since boundary lines change, and/or fence lines disappear, we've been recording coordinates for each point, using the GPSTrack app in iPhone.
The point marker signs are not always where you expect to find them. Sometimes they're not there at all. GPS readings will get you very close to the original point.
One person takes a reading on a compass while the other person places a range pole with a marked sign at the exact compass direction. The sign contains the point number, the date and direction being shot. The sign pole is placed twenty feet away from the point.
A photo is then taken, fully automatic, with the sign framed in the middle of the shot. This process is repeated for each of the cardinal directions.
Sometimes there is too much growth to get a clear shot. Vegetation has to be cut down or thinned. If there's too much heavy vegetation, a thick briar patch for example, or the encumbrance is on a neighbor's property, the photographer has to step out away from the point, noting how far and in what direction, and take the photo.
And then there are the challenges. Teams sometimes have to wade a creek or walk through a wetland to find a point. Many points are deep in wilder areas where vehicle passage isn't possible, in which case the team has to walk cross country through thick and uneven terrain.
After the two week period and the team has taken all the photos for that year, the images must be processed. This sometimes means slight adjustments, such as making the photo lighter or darker. Usually it just means changing the file name from the number assigned by the camera to the point number, direction shot and date. These are saved onto a flash drive and given to Bill Kleiman, who copies them into a folder onto his computer.
The data is also carefully recorded on a spread sheet, point numbers and date shot. This Excel file is included on the flash drive with the Photo Points.
The Photo Points project began before digital photography was very prevalent, so there is a backlog of Photo Point photos in slide or print format. These are in the process of being converted to digital format.
The following image shows in a dramatic way how valuable the Photo Point project is. The photo on the left is point #1 taken in 2008, during our first year with the project. The photo on the right is point #1 today.
Photo Points is a sometimes challenging, sometimes frustrating endeavor but always interesting and rewarding. My initial quote made the project sound adventurous. After almost ten years of doing it I still find it so.
This blog is by Charles Larry. For more of his images see: charleslarryphotography.zenfolio.com
We all know Nachusa Grasslands as a place of space. Rolling hills of grasses, seemingly endless skies, and even in the woods or savannas you can see great depths—all tell the spacious story of Nachusa. Looking at things up close tells a very different story. Up close, you see patterns, textures, rhythms that are more abstract. Up close, you see a world more intimate and, conversely, more alien.
A pheasant feather. Though not a bird native to North America, the pheasant is a common sight here. Look at the patterns of lines—lines arrayed as if in motion, branching in multiple directions. The white line down the center, the shaft, like a lightning bolt, gives energy to the feathery lines radiating from it.
The current of Clear Creek molds the sand along the bottom into irregular linear shapes. On the surface, the gold, sinewy lines of sunlight dance across and intersect the darker bottom shapes, forming the warp and woof of a living tapestry.
Focussing now on a feathery image of a different kind, the heads and flowers of Big Bluestem. The photo is framed to capture the more delicate abstract of positive and negative space. The three spikes of the grass, with its dangling yellow flowers form the positive space, while the white, cloudy sky in the background forms the negative.
Even in the most commonplace of subjects, beautiful patterns can be found. This rusted gate at the bison corral may almost seem like an underwater scene, with a school of goldfish swimming in the current. Admittedly, the contrast was pushed a little higher than usual in post-processing this photo to emphasize these patterns, which are really there, but not as visible to the human eye.
A partially burned tree is framed to suggest a kind of rectangular yin/yang symbol. The linear structure, color elements, and burned wood textures all add to the quiet beauty of this rather familiar sight at Nachusa.
To me, ice is endlessly fascinating and I always look for patterns in ice whenever I'm out in winter. The bold abstractions, lines, and movement caused by the ice crystallization has a mesmerizing effect on me. I poetically call this photo: The Heart of Winter. The red "heart" is formed by a fallen oak leaf buried under the ice.
Another undersea view where a goldfish swims over coral and seaweed? No, mosses and lichens exist together in a community on a rock outcrop at Nachusa. This image presents an almost bewildering swirl of color and texture, seemingly in motion, even though every element is securely attached to the underlying rock.
Next time you're visiting Nachusa Grasslands, take a break from bison-watching or cloud gazing and look closely. Look and see. As William Blake said, you can see a world in a grain of sand or heaven in a wildflower.
This blog was written by Charles Larry, volunteer and photographer at Nachusa Grasslands. For more of his images see: charleslarryphotography.zenfolio.com
The first day of spring 2017 has arrived! This day marks the equinox, with the sun shining equally on both the northern and southern hemispheres; the result is nearly equal hours of daylight and night. What does this mean for the prairie? Well, longer daylight means those first spring blooms are almost here! With new blades of grass already a couple inches high in the recently burned fields, April will soon bring the year’s first blooms. Let’s take a look at some of Nachusa’s beautiful spring flowers and discover where to find them. All flowers listed below are found in non–bison units and are accessible to everyone.
Before the trees fill their canopies with leaves, several flowers utilize all the sunlight shining to the ground and quickly complete their whole life–cycle; then the entire plant disappears completely, leaving no trace. These short–term blooms are called spring ephemerals.
The bloodroot is an ephemeral found in Nachusa's woodlands and savannas. Its showy white flower creates a great contrast against the forest floor. The plant’s name comes from the red juice that flows when any part of the plant is cut or bruised. Look for bloodroot under the trees in Stone Barn Savanna and Big Jump.
Another ephemeral is Virginia bluebells, and this plant can be quite stunning growing in mass groups. They bring wonderful color to the shady parts of the woodland. Look for Virginia bluebells in moist areas of Stone Barn Savanna.
Has someone been hanging their pantaloons out to dry? Certainly not! These "v-shaped" hanging flowers are found on the aptly named "Dutchman's breeches." Look for the flowers emerging from mounded fern–like foliage. Dutchman's breeches are located in the woodlands of Stone Barn Savanna.
The last featured spring ephemeral is the spring beauty. Spring beauty is a very small plant found in Nachusa’s woodlands and savannas; only 3-6” tall. To identify the flower, look for the dark pink veins found on the petals. This lovely flower can be found in Stone Barn Savanna.
Look for this unusual–looking flower in shady to partial–shady woodland areas. The flower can vary in color from reddish green (like pictured) to whitish green. Hike along the tracks in Stone Barn Savanna to find the jack-in–the–pulpit.
Many geraniums are popular with gardeners as full–sun annuals planted in flower beds or pots. Similar in appearance, the native wild geranium is a hardy perennial flower growing in woodlands. The flowers are very showy and popular among bees and other insects. The flowers can be found in areas of full–sun, part–sun or shade. Look for it in Stone Barn Savanna.
The name of this native flower is easy to remember because its blooms look like little arrows aimed at the ground. Climb along the slopes of Thelma Carpenter Prairie to find the Shooting Star.
Here is a beauty that prefers sandy soils and little competition from other plants. The bird–shaped foliage gives this flower its name. This violet species is very important at Nachusa, for it is a host to the eggs and caterpillars of the state–endangered regal fritillary butterfly. Look for the violet in sandy soils at Stone Barn Savanna and Big Jump.
Looking for wildflowers is like going on a scavenger hunt. It's a lot of fun and you never know what you will find. Remember to "take only pictures and leave only footprints!" Please feel free to share your successes or adventures in the comment section below.
Today’s author is Dee Hudson, a photographer for Nachusa Grasslands. To see more prairie images, visit her website at www.deehudsonphotography.com.
In the fall I look forward to the incredible display from the native prairie grasses. Up to this point, the grasses have remained rather unobtrusive, but in the fall they step out of the background to claim our attention. Although I enjoy them all, the little bluestem grass is definitely my favorite.
Little bluestem can be found throughout the prairie, but right now this grass is very noticeable if you to look the hills. Many of Nachusa’s knobs and hills are blanketed in an orange–red, and that color is from the . . . little bluestem grass!! In addition, throughout the winter, the grass will retain this energetic color and stand out beautifully in the snow.
As the autumn winds blow, the little bluestem grass undulates like waves in the ocean, as seen in the photo above in the upper left. It is mesmerizing to watch it ripple across a vast expanse. The view is from the top of Fameflower Knob in early fall (notice the leaves still on the trees).
As a photographer, I love to use little bluestem as a backdrop for the goldenrods and asters that bloom in the fall. Then, as the season progresses, the grass creates a wonderful texture and contrasting color for the changing leaves of many other forbs.
It is surprising to view the seeds up close through a macro lens. Look at all that white feathery fluff decorating the seedstalk! So intricate with so many fine hairs.
Come visit Nachusa and enjoy a late fall hike through the grasses. I recommend the Clear Creek Knolls hike, with a climb to the top of Fameflower Knob. The hike trailhead is accessible from the small parking lot on Lowden Road, just south of Flagg Road or 1.4 miles north of the visitor kiosk. Once you arrive at the base of the hill, there is no path, so make your own! Just avoid walking on top of the sandstone, for it crumbles easily. Give the short climb a try and if you do, leave us a comment on this blog about your adventure!
Today’s author is Dee Hudson, a photographer and volunteer for Nachusa Grasslands. To see more prairie images, visit her website at www.deehudsonphotography.com.
I am a nature photographer, a freelance graphic designer, and steward at Nachusa's Thelma Carpenter Prairie. I have taken photos for Nachusa since 2012.
I have been a high school French teacher, registered piano technician, and librarian. In retirement I am a volunteer historian at Lee County Historical and Genealogical Society.